This page is a starting point for everything about autism; here we give a general overview of autism and Asperger's Syndrome, myths around autism and information on causes and genetics. Some links on this page will direct you to external sites.
There's also a video from our YouTube channel, En-Fold Ch@ts, further down the page - we'd love you to check it out and subscribe!
Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental condition that impacts how people experience the world and relate to others. Being a spectrum disorder autism is different for each person and can affect them differently. Some on the autism spectrum have learning disabilities, mental health issues or other conditions.
The main areas that people on the spectrum have difficulties with are social communication and interaction and restricted and repetitive behaviour patterns, routines and interests.
A poem from lived experience, by Julie, an En-Fold mentor/befriender
I would love to live inside your head, just for the day.
So I can start to understand the things you do and say.
Your brain is so amazing and remembering is your skill.
There seems to be nothing you cannot recall at your will.
But I can see sometimes you’re tired but your brain just will not rest.
Often awake with worry, something happened in your day your mind is like a test.
I would love to live inside your head, just for the day.
So I can see the world as you do and help in any way.
Asperger's Syndrome is a part of the autism spectrum; people with Aspergers are average or above-average intelligence. Those with an Asperger's diagnosis don't have the learning disabilities that many autistic individuals have but can have specific learning difficulties, for example, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dyscalculia and dysgraphia. There are usually fewer problems with speech, but challenges with understanding and processing language remain.
Due to Asperger Syndrome varies widely between individuals, making diagnosis difficult is often diagnosed later in children and sometimes goes undiagnosed until adulthood compared to autism.
Asperger Syndrome gets its name from an Austrian paediatrician, Hans Asperger. In 2018 a study was published researching his relationship with the Nazi regime which concluded that he assisted with their euthanasia programme. This connection should be no reflection on those with the diagnosis of Asperger's. Many people with this diagnosis prefer to use the term 'Asperger's' or 'Aspie'
instead of 'autism'.
Links to more information on the subject are below:
With a growing understanding and acceptance of autism, there are still some common myths. These myths contain false information around autism and perpetuate negative perceptions of autism that can impact the lives of the many people diagnosed with autism.
Autistic individuals can struggle with social communication and interaction. Occasionally they can come across as shy or unfriendly; this has no reflection on their want to have friends.
Autistic children become autistic adults. Autism is a life long condition.
Autism doesn’t cause people to be unable to feel emotions; it just affects how the person communicates those emotions and how they perceive the feelings and expressions of others.
You may recognise autistic traits and behaviours in yourself or others; however, to have an autism diagnosis, a person must consistently display behaviours across all the different areas of the condition. Just having a fondness for routines, a good memory or being shy doesn’t make a person ‘a bit autistic’
Autistic individuals can have any level of intelligence. Aspects of autism can give people the impression that autistic individuals have a lower level of intelligence when the intelligence levels in the autistic community vary between people the same as it does for those without autism.
A person can be anywhere on the spectrum, meaning the characteristics, skills and abilities are different from person to person. One person’s abilities and limitations are no indications of another person’s.
There is evidence that vaccines do not cause autism, and the original paper was disproven and retracted in 2010, and the doctor responsible was removed from the UK medical register. Today several groups claiming still claim there is a link between autism despite this being proven wrong. Vaccines go through rigorous testing before being given to anyone to ensure that they are safe.
Many children with autism grow up to be adults who live independently, work, and develop close friendships and relationships. Autistic adults may require additional support throughout their lives based on personal circumstance and any other needs or conditions they have.
The current sex ratio for autism is roughly four boys to every girl. The high rate of boys diagnosed with autism compared to girls may be due to autism showing differently in girls making it harder to diagnose. Evidence suggests that autism presents differently in girls, and different diagnostic criteria should be used for diagnosing girls to take into account the differences.
Sometimes, children engage in repetitive behaviour because they are bored, stressed or playing. Recognising the function of the behaviour is important. Repetitive play, or stimming is something we all do to self-regulate, but in people with autism, it can be more pronounced. It can be detrimental to stop self-soothing behaviour, but if it is inappropriate, it may be necessary to adapt the behaviour or teach where it should occur.
The bad parenting myth originates from poor research conducted in the 1950s, suggesting that mother’s who lacked emotional warmth caused autism, by the 1960s, this was widely refuted and disproved. There is no evidence that poor parenting or poor parent-child relationships cause autism. Genetic factors cause autism, possibly combined with environmental factors in utero.
Autism usually impacts how a person interprets and understands unspoken social communication, so someone with autism might not detect sadness based on someone’s body language or sarcasm in a person’s voice. But, autistic individuals are more likely to empathise and show compassion towards emotions communicated directly.
There is no single cause for autism, investigations and studies into potential causes for autism are continuous. Many believe that genetics factor into autism and some believe there could be an environmental impact too. Despite many years and much money spent on research into the causes of autism, we still don’t know the answer.
To some extent, parents in the United States pushed for genetic study to find the cause. Potential factors for this could be disproving the ‘refrigerator mother’ theory, the research found no single gene to be the cause of autism, and study delves deeper into genomic complexities.
More recently, autistic adults express that they are not so interested in finding out the cause of autism. What they would like is research into making their day to day lives more comfortable, access to services, etc.
-Having an immediate family member with autism
-Genetic mutations or having another genetic disorder, e.g. Fragile X
-Being born to older parents, or a multiple pregnancy, e.g. twins
-Low birth weight
-Exposure to heavy metals and environmental toxins
-A history of viral infections
While genetic links are still not fully understood and an area still being researched, it is widely recognised that genetic relationships do exist. Research on this is continuing. There are several studies in progress to determine the specific genetic factors associated with the development of autism. Up to 90% of children diagnosed with autism will have one or both parents who have significant traits if not diagnosed with the condition. Twin and family studies suggest that some people have a genetic tendency to autism, and families with one child with autism, the likelihood of another child having autism increases.
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Disclaimer: En-Fold does not endorse treatments, interventions and therapies but lists them so people can make informed choice. This site is for information purposes only and is a starting point for readers to look into options that may fit or resonate. Remember, therapies for autism, like any condition, should be discussed with a trusted medical practitioner or certified therapist before use. All information, data and material contained, presented or provided here is for general information purposes only and is not to be construed as reflecting the knowledge or opinions of En-Fold, or as providing legal or medical advice. All treatment decisions should be made by the individual in consultation with a health care provider. Case studies provided are done so in good faith, and based on the personal experience of the individual submitting them. En-Fold are in no way endorsing the establishments that are mentioned but offering peer reviews to inform readers.